Archives for Solar Energy

How Solar PV Systems Work

Generating electricity using solar electric panels and associated equipment

How Solar PV Panels Generate Electricity

Solar photovoltaic (PV) panels use cells containing a semi-conductor material to capture the sun’s energy and convert solar radiation into electricity. The most commonly used semi-conductor material is silicon, which is an abundant natural resource found in sand. When light strikes the cell a certain amount of energy is absorbed within the semiconductor material, knocking electrons, the negatively charged particles that form the basis of electricity, loose.

Most PV cells have two layers of semi-conductor material, one positively charged and one negatively charged. When light shines on the semi-conductor the electric field across the junction between these two layers causes electricity to flow, generating direct current (DC). By placing metal contacts on the top and bottom of the PV cell, we can draw that current off for external use.

Solar PV electric panels do not require bright sunlight in order to operate, meaning that you can still generate electricity on cloudy days, however in general the greater the intensity of light the higher the flow of electricity. Although,  due to the reflection of sunlight, days with slight cloud can result in higher energy yields than days with a completely cloudless sky.

It is important to realise that you can only use your free solar electricity when it is being generated – so unless you also invest in batteries to store power for use in the evenings and at night, you will need to pay for your energy use as normal when the panels are not producing electric.

How the Electricity is Converted for use

Direct Current (DC) needs to be converted into alternating current (AC) so it can be used in a domestic building; this is performed by an inverter. The AC electricity then passes via the generation meter, which measures how much electricity has been created, and on to the consumer unit where it can be fed into the property for use or exported back to the national grid via the electricity meter.

A typical grid connected roof mounted system consists of a number of components, as shown in the diagram to the right.

You will be paid for every kWh of electricity that your solar PV system generates, even if you use the power yourself. You will also be paid an additional amount for any electricity that you export to the national grid. Click here to visit the feed in tariff page to find out more.


We will happily answer any of your questions regarding our PV services. Simply leave us your contact details below and a member of our team will get in touch with you.

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    Solar Powered Air Conditioners: A Comprehensive Guide

    The Sun has been a source of energy in our cosmic system for billions of years. The history of humans using the Sun as an energy source is as old as mankind itself. It helps to grow food, for warmth, for fire, and for other uses across different continents. With the passage of time and advancement in technology though, we have been able to harness the immense potential of the sun in the form of photovoltaic cells and use it for much greater purposes. The Sun’s rays can now be converted into electricity, and be used to power our homes and appliances at a fraction of the environmental impact as compared to conventional sources. In this era of sustainability, this serves as a major driver for the growth of solar power.
    What started as a niche application of this concept, has now turned into mass scale implementation of solar power. One such application of this renewable energy source is in air conditioning, through solar air conditioners. These heating and cooling appliances can work by using the sun as an energy source. Reduced energy bills and minimal environmental impact are just some of the benefits which this energy source provides. If you are like most homeowners and your air conditioner is powered by electricity from the grid, it’s likely that you will notice an increase in your bills considering the recent energy price hike. With solar – powered air conditioners you can harness the sun’s natural energy to maintain an ideal home climate while saving on energy bills. Let’s read on and find out all there is to know about solar air conditioning.

    Why We Need Solar Powered Air Conditioners?

    Solar powered AC.

    With solar – powered AC units, you may still need to use electricity from the main power grid, but your consumption will drop up to 50%, depending on your climate. So, with solar power AC, you can save tremendous amounts of money on AC bills. This also helps to offset the initial high installation costs of solar panels Switching towards solar powered central air conditioning or installing solar powered window or portable air conditioners can be a great step towards fighting the current climate crisis.

    Benefits of Solar Air Conditioning

    The solar panel air conditioners provide several advantages. The only downside is that they require a high initial investment.

    1. Increases the Value of Your Property

    In addition to environmental benefits, solar panel air conditioners can also help increase the value of your home. The buyers are willing to pay more for homes with solar air conditioning.

    2. Saves on Bills

    With solar – powered AC units, you may still need to use electricity from the main power grid, but your consumption will drop up to 50%, depending on your climate. So, with solar power AC, you can save tremendous amounts of money on AC bills. This also helps to offset the initial high installation costs of solar panels.

    3. Reduces the Energy Demand

    Conventional AC systems operating during the hottest days can overload the electricity grid, leading to power outages in summer. Solar air conditioners are particularly helpful as they lower the demand during peak usage by shifting the load from the main grid. This can help reduce the frequency of power blackouts and brownouts.

    4. No Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    As solar energy is a renewable source, the solar power air conditioning units reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. This, in turn, helps to lower the emission of greenhouse gasses that contribute to global warming.

    Even with solar – powered air conditioners, there are a few different options available. These differ based on the mode of power that the air conditioner is getting. Let’s see them below.

    • DC Powered Solar Air Conditioners

    Also known as conventional solar – powered air conditioners, DC solar air conditioners run on direct current (DC) electricity, meaning that the solar panels are directly wired to it. They can run through the batteries, which are charged through solar power; therefore can run entirely off – grid. They use solar panels, photovoltaic panels to collect sunlight and turn it into electric energy. This type of air conditioner provides a few major advantages, which are:

    • As a solar panel produces DC electricity, running such an air conditioner directly off the solar panel will not be a problem.
    • DC – powered solar air conditioners are the go-to option for complete off-the-grid living and you can run them with minimal extra equipment cost, as in AC – powered air conditioners.
    • They are easy to install and maintain.

    The disadvantage of such a system is that you would need a hefty battery bank to supply power for night time operation. The other option is to use a rectifier device to convert the AC electricity from the power mains to DC and then run the air conditioner. Still, it defeats the whole purpose of a solar – powered air conditioner!

    • AC Powered Solar Air Conditioners

    Alternating Current is the more well – known solar air conditioner. For AC air conditioners to run with solar power, you need a device known as an inverter, converting the DC from the solar panels into AC. The inverter is an integral part of such a setup. Moreover, the solar powered air conditioner then uses up the energy stored in a battery after passing through the inverter. Due to this reason, AC powered solar air conditioners provide the following advantages:

    • These air conditioners can also be tied up to the grid power and run as a standard air conditioner. You don’t require an extra equipment since this air conditioner can run on AC power.
    • The primary advantage of such a system is that you can run it with grid power and solar panels.
    • If these ACs are tied to the grid, you can give excess electricity produced back to the grid and get credits for it by a process called net metering.
    • Hybrid Powered Solar Air Conditioners

    Hybrid solar-powered air conditioners can run on both DC and AC at the same time, seamlessly. Such units can be connected to both the solar panels/batteries directly and to the grid at the same time. The unit can then use the appropriate power source according to the time of day and power load.

    • There is no additional equipment, such as an inverter, which means the total costs are also less.
    • They can switch between solar power and grid power smoothly.
    • They are very flexible to operate during all times of the day and seasons.

    The disadvantage of this system is that if your batteries are not charged and installed it off-grid, it won’t work at night.

    How Does a Solar AC Work?

    A solar air conditioner combines solar electricity and air conditioning. In simple words, it takes energy from the Sun and uses it to power your AC to cool your space!

    A solar panel is a device that captures the power of the Sun. It converts the Sun rays into electrical energy. This energy can then be used directly or stored in a battery. This is known as DC power. A solar – powered air conditioner then uses this DC power, either directly as DC or after conversion into AC (using an inverter), and heats or cools your home. Instead of using grid energy, a solar – powered air conditioner uses the energy of the Sun. It can use the grid energy, though, if needed.

    The solar AC units collects energy in two ways: photovoltaic (PV) systems or solar thermal systems. Solar PV systems use photovoltaic panels to generate electricity, while solar thermal systems work like solar water heaters. They use up the sun’s energy to heat up water which then changes the refrigerant into a heat-absorbing gas that provides air-conditioned air to your home.

    Factors to Consider When Shifting to Solar Powered AC

    Here are some factors to consider when choosing a solar power air conditioner for your home.

    • Climate Conditions

    Areas that receive more sunlight around the year and have longed summer season will only require a few solar panels. On the other hand, if you are in a location that gets less light will need more panels and a bigger battery for backup to harness the sun’s energy.

    • Size of Your Home

    If your home is larger, it will need more AC capacity for air conditioning the entire space. So, you will need more solar panels as compared to a smaller area. On average, most homes need 10 to 20 solar panels to cover all the electric appliances.

    • Battery

    If you live in a mild climate that doesn’t get much sunlight, it’s best to invest in batteries. Opting for batteries is also a good idea if you want to go completely off – grid so you can store solar energy for the night and on cloudy days.

    What Is the Make Your Solar Powered Air Conditioners Smart

    Saving energy with solar powered air conditioning is one step; save even further with smart air conditioning! Pair your mini – split, window, or portable air conditioner with a smart AC controller for home climate automation and greater savings. Smart AC controllers can help you save up to 25% on electricity bills. Moreover, you can also control your solar – powered AC unit from anywhere using your phone, set weekly schedules, enable geofencing or set other intelligent triggers for your home cooling and heating!

    Is Switching to Solar Air Conditioning Worth It?

    Solar-powered AC’s can be a game – changer. With modern, efficient air conditioners, powering through solar energy is becoming more simple year after year. Considering environmental benefits, energy savings, and tax credit, solar powered air conditioners are an exceptional choice for heating and cooling requirements.


    Via: Cielo Wigle

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      Submission Of Applications To The Photovoltaic Installation Plan For Electric Vehicle Charging Has Begun

      The start of submitting applications to the Sponsorship project for the installation of a photovoltaic system for charging an electric or plug – in hybrid vehicle ” is announced . The amount of the sponsorship for the installation or expansion of an existing photovoltaic system amounts to €750 per kW, with a maximum sponsorship amount of €1,500 per vehicle.

      The Plan was announced on 20/04/2022 in order to give the opportunity to the interested parties to proceed with the implementation of the corresponding investment. The Plan’s budget amounts to €1.5 million and is part of the efforts of the Ministry of Energy, Trade and Industry and the Government in general to promote electrification and sustainable transport.

      In addition to the installation of the photovoltaic system, the Plan provides the beneficiaries with the opportunity to purchase and install a charger, convert the electrical installation of the house from single-phase to three-phase and purchase a battery to store the energy produced by the photovoltaic system. Beneficiaries of the plan are natural persons who live in a house and are owners of an electric or plug-in hybrid vehicle.

      The Scheme has retroactive effect from 01/02/2022 (date of connection of the photovoltaic system) and will remain open until 20/12/2023 or until the available budget is exhausted.

      The amount of the sponsorship for the installation or expansion of an existing photovoltaic system amounts to €750 per kW, with a maximum sponsorship amount of €1,500 per vehicle.

      Discretionary costs are financed as follows:

      ‒ Purchase and installation of a charger, €600.

      ‒ Conversion of electrical installation of the house from single-phase to three-phase, €450.

      ‒ Battery purchase/installation, €750 per kWh, with a maximum sponsorship amount per application of €2,000.

      The Grant Scheme is included in the Recovery and Resilience Plan “Cyprus to avrio” for the period 2021–2026, and is funded by the EU.


      All information about the Plan and access to the application process are posted on the website of the RES and EXE Fund:



      Source: Ministry of Energy Commerce and Industry

      Please use this form to contact us to discuss your renewable energy options for a more sustainable future.

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        We’re Hiring – Office Administrator


        Established in 1988, Z&X Group has built a strong reputation over the years and is dedicated to customer service and support.

        It holds one of the largest Mechanical Engineering companies in Cyprus, a Holiday Villas and a Car Rentals company.


        We are seeking to recruit an enthusiastic, organised and experienced Office Administrator to join our team and assist in administrative duties. We offer a friendly working environment and the successful applicant will be supporting the engineering and tendering department.

        To be considered for the role, you’ll require the following essentials:

        • Proficient in MS Office
        • Critical thinker and problem-solving skills
        • Team player
        • Good time-management skills
        • Great interpersonal and communication skills
        • Ability to work under pressure
        • Dynamic and flexible to be able to respond to changing priorities
        • Ability to communicate effectively and clearly
        • Previous experience in a similar position
        • Fluency in Greek and English both written and oral
        • Ethical, trustworthy, reliable, discreet and individual
        • Dynamic, results-oriented, self-motivated and able to work in a dynamic and fast paced environment
        • Must be able to work individually as well as part of a team
        • Flexible and willing to take up new challenges and opportunities
        • Excellent organisational and communication skills

        Within this position, you’ll also be:

        • Processing of customer requests
        • Answering incoming calls
        • Record keeping & data management
        • Generating quotes & order confirmations
        • Organising deliveries & collections
        • Updating databases & using a CRM system
        • Organize projects files
        • Processing of business requests
        • Carry out site surveys and data collection
        • Coordinate with clients
        • Contribute to the improvement of internal controls

        To apply for this vacancy, please send your CV, along with a covering letter to

        All applications will be treated with strict confidence.

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        mechanical installations

        Geothermal Energy

        Geothermal energy is heat derived within the sub-surface of the earth. Water and/or steam carry the geothermal energy to the Earth’s surface. Depending on its characteristics, geothermal energy can be used for heating and cooling purposes or be harnessed to generate clean electricity. A geothermal energy cooling / heating system is based on using the full potential of the constant temperature and thermal conductivity of the earths substructure.

        We can see this phenomenon in basement areas where during the summer the area is cool and during the winter warm without the use of air conditioning.

        Geothermal energy can be broken down into two categories: open loop systems and closed loop systems.

        Open loop geothermal energy for cooling / heating is the pumping of under ground water source through a heat pump (or VRV) and the return of the water after the energy transfer. This method needs a constant water supply.

        mechanical installations

        Closed loop Geothermal energy systems can be divide into two categories.

        Horizontal closed loop Geothermal energy system is installed at least 1.5 meters below the ground with pipe spacing of at least 1.8 – 2.2  Rm per m². Output is 20 – 35W/m². This system has the disadvantage of requiring a large area to be installed.

        mechanical installations

        Vertical closed loop Geothermal energy system where the loop is installed in a vertical bore well (6” – 8” diameter) and 60 – 120 deep. The minimum distance between the wells is 5 meters and the output is 40-70W/meter of depth, and depending on the soil structure. This system is more popular as you need less space and have a higher output.

        mechanical installations

        The heat which is collected from the earth is transferred to the  system (heat pump, chiller, VRV, etc.) and the exchange is made via heat exchangers and transferred to the cooling circuit of the unit as in a normal system. Due to the fact that the temperature is constant in the earth (±18.5°C) the energy required for this  this process is much less than in a normal system where the  air temperature is 40°C in summer and 5-10°C in winter.

        Geothermal  energy can be used for under floor heating, fan coils, or for VRV systems, and the savings in comparison to a normal Air to water system can be up to 50-60% depending on the application and use of system.     

        Contact Us If You Have Any Questions

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          Photo Credits: Shutterstock

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          net metering cyprus

          Τι είναι το Net Metering και πως να επωφεληθείς – Εγκαταστάσεις Φωτοβολταϊκών με επιχορήγηση και γρήγορη απόσβεση!

          Ακόμη πληρώνεις ρεύμα; 

          Το Net Metering είναι η εγκατάσταση μικρού ΦΒ συστήματος ισχύος μέχρι 10 KWp σε μόνιμες κατοικίες ή επαγγελματικά υποστατικά, το οποίο πετυχαίνει εξοικονόμηση ενέργειας μέχρι και 17000 KWh ετησίως.

          ΜΟΝΟ η διαφορά κατανάλωσης ηλεκτρικής ενέργειας πληρώνεται στην ΑΗΚ, συν τα ετήσια τέλη! 

          Με βάση τα Σχέδια Χορηγιών Ανανεώσιμων Πηγών Ενέργειας & Εξοικονόμησης Ενέργειας, για εγκατάσταση ΦΒ Συστήματος με τη μέθοδο συμψηφισμού γίνεσε αυτόματα δικαιούχος για επιχορήγηση €250 ανά εγκατεστημένο kW με μέγιστο ποσό τα €1000 (ΚΑΤΗΓΟΡΙΑ 3Α).

          Πως θα γίνει αυτό;

          1. Θα επισκεφτούμε το χώρο σας και θα κάνουμε τη μελέτη για τις ανάγκες του υποστατικού σας.

          2. Θα υποβάλει η εταιρεία μας αίτηση για έγκριση στην Αρχή Ηλεκτρισμού Κύπρου.

          3. Μετά την έγκριση θα γίνει η εγκατάσταση του συστήματος.

          4. Μετά την ολοκλήρωση της εγκατάστασης, η εταιρεία μας θα υποβάλει αίτηση για έλεγχο από την Αρχή Ηλεκτρισμού Κύπρου, όπου θα οριστεί η ημερομηνία ελέγχου.

          5. Μετά την έγκριση από την επίσκεψη ελέγχου, και αφού έχει ξοφληθεί η προμήθεια και εγκατάσταση του συστήματος, η εταιρεία μας θα ετοιμάσει την αίτηση για επιχορήγηση, η οποία παραχωρείτε απευθείας στον δικαιούχο μέσω του τραπεζικού του λογαριασμού.  

          Αναλόγως του συστήματος και της χρήσης ρεύματος, η απόσβεση της αρχική επένδυσης προβλέπετε σε 3-6 χρόνια, κάτι το οποίο θα είναι ξεκάθαρο όταν γίνει η ακριβής μελέτη του υποστατικού σας.

          Για περισσότερες πληροφορίες ή διευθέτηση ραντεβού, μπορείτε να επικοινωνήσετε μαζί μας συμπληρώνοντας τα στοιχεία σας πιο κάτω.

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            cyprus renewable energy

            Save Energy and Money – Go Green Today!


            The production of electricity from sunlight is gaining popularity worldwide. Installation of your own photovoltaic system is a sound investment. 

            Still not sure? We can pay you a visit for a free site consultation! Z&X Mechanical Installations can provide you with the best options for your needs. Our professional team of trained and experienced engineers can advise you on the most productive photovoltaic system for your needs.

            Click HERE and find out about some of our residential and corporate projects successfully completed over the years.

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            Mechanical Engineer Vacancy

            Η εταιρεία Z&X Mechanical Installations στη Πάφο ζητά να εργοδοτήσει πτυχιούχο Μηχανολόγο Μηχανικό για άμεση απασχόληση για το τμήμα προσφορών, σχεδιασμού και οργάνωσης.

            Απαραίτητες προϋποθέσεις

            – Γνώση του προγράμματος AutoCAD

            – Γνώση των προγραμμάτων Microsoft Office

            – Γνώση Αγγλικής γλώσσας

            – 3 χρόνια Προϋπηρεσίας

            Αιτήσεις και βιογραφικά θα λαμβάνονται μέσω email στη διεύθυνση

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            photovoltaic systems cyprus

            Photovoltaic System Battery Storage

            Photovoltaic systems increasingly use rechargeable batteries to store energy to be later used at night. Batteries used for storage also stabilize the electrical grid by levelling out peak loads, and play an important role in a smart grid, as they can charge during periods of low demand and feed their stored energy into the grid when demand is high.

            Common battery technologies used in today’s PV systems include the valve regulated lead-acid battery– a modified version of the conventional lead–acid battery, nickel–cadmium and lithium-ion batteries. Compared to the other types, lead-acid batteries have a shorter lifetime and lower energy density. However, due to their high reliability, low self-discharge as well as low investment and maintenance costs, they are currently the predominant technology used in small-scale, residential PV systems, as lithium-ion batteries are still being developed and about 3.5 times as expensive as lead-acid batteries. Furthermore, as storage devices for PV systems are stationary, the lower energy and power density and therefore higher weight of lead-acid batteries are not as critical as, for example, in electric transportation. Other rechargeable batteries that are considered for distributed PV systems include sodium–sulphur and vanadium redox batteries, two prominent types of a molten salt and a flow battery, respectively.

            Photovoltaic systems with an integrated battery solution need also a charge controller, as the current and varying voltage from the solar array requires constant adjustment to prevent damage from overcharging. Basic charge controllers may simply turn the PV panels on and off, or may meter out pulses of energy as needed.

            Image result for photovoltaic system battery storage

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